The foundations laid by Froebel were expanded on by many theorists in the following decades, including Swiss-born educator Jean Paget. In the early 19th century, Piaget began researching the reasons behind incorrect answers children were giving to standardized IQ tests.
He concluded that the traditional idea that children were “empty vessels to be filled with knowledge” was incorrect, and instead believed them to be “active builders of knowledge-little scientists who construct their own theories of the world.”
Piaget developed a cognitive childhood development theory, which is still taught in education courses
Throughout these stages, Piaget, like Froebel, argued that a teacher should serve as a guide rather than an instructor, encouraging students to make mistakes and ask questions to aid learning and growth.